New York City Park and Ride (P&R) Study


The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology to assess where P&R facilities should be located to maximize their usefulness to New York city. In doing so, it is necessary to reach a set of analytical formulations that provide insight into the factors that would contribute to the success of P&R, and the implications of location decisions.

The novel approach developed by the team is based on the explicitly considerations of the conditions under which a rational user would find it beneficial to use P&R; and weaves these findings into a set of policy recommendations. The project builds on these results by considering the role that P&R location has on the determination of the potential demand for the system

Project tasks

The P&R study includes:

  • Develop a comprehensive literature review in P&R design, location, operation, and plan.
  • Suggest best practices for location analyses.
  • Provide guidelines on how to design, and plan P&R facilities.
  • Scan of potential sites in New York Metropolitan Transportation Council area.
  • Propose a methodology to evaluate P&R facilities.
  • Apply the evaluation methodology and give a set of recommendations for specific P&R.

Work in Progress

  • The team is reviewing the NYMTC data in order to evaluate the proposed methodology.
  • Next step is to run computer programs to identify OD pairs that benefit from P&R, in terms of both, generalized cost and travel time.
  • Sensitivity analysis of mode choice to compute cost-benefit for various scenarios.

Further Research

This project developed analytical formulations to gain insight into the optimal location, i.e., the one that maximizes the potential market, P&R facilities. The analysis is based on a fundamental principle of rationality, i.e., that a traveler would only consider using a PR facility if the corresponding generalized cost is lower than the auto only alternative, which is taken as a necessary economic condition.

This implies that the P&R system must provide a service that is fast and frequent enough to overcome the transfer costs (waiting to the P&R, and waiting for the transit vehicle). As a result, it is very difficult to make an economic case for PR use when the transit system does not travel faster than the general traffic. Under these conditions, the necessary condition is not met.


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